What is Interoperability?
In general this refers to the ability of a system to work with other systems special effort on the part of the users.
This article compares the Interoperability of c# and Java.
We can classify Interoperability into three types they are
- Language Interoperability
- Platform Interoperability
- Standards Interoperability
C# has its strength in Language Interoperability, while java has its strength in Platform Interoperability and both have them have their own sides in Standard Interoperability.
Let us have a review on each Interoperability in detail by comparing C# and Java
1. Language Interoperability
This is the level and ease of integration with other languages. Both the Common Language Runtime (CLR) and the Java Virtual Machine(JVM) allow you to write code in many different languages, so long as they compile to byte code or IL code respectively. However, the .NET platform has done much more than just allows other languages to be compiled to IL code. .NET allows multiple languages to freely share and extend each others libraries to a great extent. For instance, an Eiffel or Visual Basic programmer could import a C# class, override a virtual method of that class, and the C# object would now use the Visual Basic method (polymorphism). In case you were wondering, VB.NET has been massively upgraded to have modern object oriented features.
Languages written for .NET will generally plug into the Visual Studio.NET environment and use the same RAD frameworks if needed, thus overcoming the "second rate citizen" effect of using another language.
C# provides P/Invoke, which is a much simpler (no-dlls) way to interact with C code than Java's JNI. This feature is very similar to J/Direct, which is a feature of Microsoft Visual J++.
2. Platform Interoperability
Generally this means Operating System Interoperability, but over the last few years the internet browser has emerged as a platform in itself.
C# code runs in a managed execution environment, which is the most important technological step to making C# run on different operating systems. However, some of the .NET libraries are based on Windows, particularly the WinForms library which depends on the nitty gritty details of the Windows API. There is a project to port the Windows API to Unix systems, but this isn't here now and Microsoft have not given any firm indication of their intentions in this area.
However, Microsoft hasn't ignored platform interoperability. The .NET libraries provide extensive capabilities to write HTML/DHTML solutions. For solutions which can be implemented with a HTML/DHTML client, C#/.NET is a good choice. For cross-platform projects which require a more complex client interface, Java is a good choice. Kylix, a version of Delphi which allows the same code to compile to both Windows and Linux may also be a good choice for rich cross-platform solutions in the future.
Microsoft has submitted the C# specification as well as parts of the .NET specification to the ECMA standards body.
3. Standard Interoperability
These are all the standards like databases systems, graphics libraries, internet protocols, and object communication standards like COM and CORBA, that the language can access. Since Microsoft owns or plays a big role in defining many of these standards, they are in a very good position to support them. They of course have business motivations (I'm not saying they are or are not justified) to provide less support for standards which compete with their own - for instance - CORBA competes with COM and OpenGL competes with DirectX. Similarly, Sun's business motivations (again I'm not saying they are or are not justified) means Java doesn't provide as good support for Microsoft standards as it could.
C# objects, since they are implemented as .NET objects, are automatically exposed as COM objects. C# thus has the ability to expose COM objects as well as to use COM objects. This will allow the huge base of COM code to be integrate with C# projects. .NET is a framework which can eventually replace COM - but there is so much deployed COM code that by the time this happens I'm sure .NET will be replaced by the next wave of technology. Anyway, expect .NET to have a long and interesting history!
This Article Explains Interoperabilty.